哪里可以找到拖拉机的英文专业术语?

来源:百度知道 编辑:UC知道 时间:2022/12/08 03:15:16
如果能满足下面的三点就最好了
一,要全面,包括所有可能涉及到的零件
二,要详细,我不懂机械,不解释清楚没法理解
三,要有图示,形象的东西容易记住
四,中英文互译

关于汽车的零部件英文大全, 拖拉机零部件应该都包括进去了吧

整车 Finished Automobile

轿车 Passenger Car

休旅车 Recreational Vehicle (RV)

小型商用车(3.5吨以下)

Light Duty Commercial Car

(Less Than 3.5 Tons)

大型商用车(3.5吨以上)

Heavy Duty Commercial Car

(More Than 3.5 Tons)

散装车 Bulk Truck

搅拌车 Mixer Truck

环境卫生车 Garbage Truck

液罐车 Refueling Truck

倾卸车 Dumper Truck

曳引车 Tractor Truck

消防车 Fire Fighting Truck

堆高机 Forklift

拖板车 Pallet Truck

运钞车 Armor Cash Carrier

冷气客车 Air-Conditioned Car

冷冻车 Freezer Car

拖车 Trailer

车体打造(改装) Car Body Building

(Refitting)

瓦斯车 LPG Car

底盘车 Chasis Truck

引擎零件 Engine Parts

引擎 Engine

引擎波司 Engine Bush

引擎修理包 Engine Gasket Kits

引擎零件 Engine Parts

凸轮轴 Camshaft

凸轮轴链轮 Sprocket Camshaft

皮带张力器 Tensioner

曲轴 Crankshaft

曲轴皮带盘 Crankshaft Pulley

曲轴轴承片 Crankshaft Bearing

汽门 Valve

汽门座 Valve Seat

汽门摇臂 Valve Arm

汽门摇臂盖 Rocker Cover

汽门弹簧 Valve Spring

汽门导管 Valve Guide

汽缸头(盖) Cylinder Head

汽缸衬套 Cylinder Liner

汽缸体 Cylinder Block

波司垫片 Washer

活塞 Piston

活塞肖 Piston Pin

活塞环 Piston Ring

活塞衬套 Piston Liner

飞轮 Flywheel

飞轮环齿轮 Ring Gear of Flywheel

时规炼条/皮带 Timing Chain/Belt

连杆 Connecting Rod

连杆轴承片 Connecting Rod Bearing

摇臂轴 Rocker Arm Shaft

汽门锁 Valve Cotter

止推垫片 Thrust Washer

共鸣箱 Resonator

喷油嘴 Injection Nozzle

燃料系统 Fueling System

油箱 Fuel Tank

油箱浮筒 Gauge Fuel Tank

空气滤清器 Air Cleaner

空气滤清器盖 Air Cleaner Cover

空气滤清器导管 Air Intake Tube

空气滤蕊 Air Cleaner Element

消音器 Exhaust Muffler

排气歧管 Exhaust Manifold

排气管 Exhaust Pipe

进气歧管 Intake Manifold

节流阀 Throttle Valve

燃油管 Fuel Pipe

燃油帮浦 Fuel Pump

燃油滤清器 Fuel Filter

触媒转化器 Catalytic Converter

柴油车黑烟净化器 Diesel Particulate Filter

时规炼条/皮带外盖 Timing Chain/Belt Cover

燃料系统 Fueling System

废气回收管 EGR Tube

冷却系统 Cooling System

水箱 Radiator

水管 Water Hose

水箱水管 Radiator Hose

水帮浦 Water Pump

水箱风扇 Radiator Fan

风扇 Fan

副水箱 Auxiliary Radiator

节温器 Thermostat

调节器 Regulator

水箱支架 Radiator Mounting

冷却系统 Cooling System

A/C风扇 A/C Fan

润滑系统 Lubrication System

油底壳 Oil Pan

自排车用滤油器 Oil Filter for Automatic

Transmission

机油尺 Oil Level Gauge

机油帮浦 Oil Pump

机油滤清器 Oil Filter

机油滤网 Oil Strainer

润滑系统 Lubrication System

机油尺导管 Oil Level Gauge Tube

空调系统 Air-conditioning System

冷气总成 A/C Assembly

冷气配管 A/C Hose

冷气导风管 A/C Duct

冷气压缩机 A/C Compressor

冷凝器 A/C Condenser

暖气总成 Heater Assembly

鼓风机 Blower Assembly

蒸发器 Evaporator

冷媒管 A/C Pipe

储液瓶 A/C Receiver

空调相关零件 A/C Related Components

空气清净机 Air Purifier

空调滤网 A/C Filter

空调系统 Air-conditioning System

提速器 Actuator

车身钣金件 Body & Stamping Parts

引擎支撑 Engine Mounting

引擎盖 Engine Hood

车身 Car Body

车门 Door Panel

车顶板 Roof

底盘及其另件 Chassis and Related Parts

底盘车架 Frame

门框 Sash

保险杆 Bumper

钣金件 Stamping Parts

叶子板 Fender

横梁 Cross Member

行李箱盖 Trunk Lid

车柱 Pillar

车身钣金件 Body & Stamping Parts

支架 Bracket

补强板 Reinforcement Plate

底盘系统 Chassis System

下臂 Lower Arm

上臂 Upper Arm

手刹车拉柄 Parking Brake Lever

支柱总成 Strut Assembly

方向盘 Steering Wheel

比例阀 Proportional Valve

主轴、副轴 Mainshaft / Countershaft

平衡杆 Stabilizer Bar

扭力杆 Torsion Bar

刹车分泵 Brake Cylinder

刹车来令片 Brake Lining Shoe

刹车油管(软) Brake Hose

刹车油管(硬) Brake Tube

刹车真空倍力器 Brake Vacuum Booster

刹车总泵 Brake Master Cylinder

后轴总成 Rear Axle Assembly

动力方向系统 Power Steering System

动力转向油管 Power Steering Hose

动力转向帮浦 Power Steering Pump

控制拉线 Control Cable

排档杆 Shift Lever

排档头 Knob

球形接头 Ball Joint

等速接头 C.V. Joint

传动轴 Propeller Shaft

叶片弹簧 Leaf Spring

鼓、碟式刹车器 Drum / Disc Brake Assembly

鼓式刹车盘 Brake Drum

碟式刹车盘 Brake Disc

辅助气囊 Air Bag

踏板 Pedal

齿轮 Gear

横拉杆接头 Tie-Rod End

螺旋弹簧 Coil Spring

避震器 Shock Absorber

转向连杆 Steering Linkage

转向节臂 Knuckle

转向齿轮箱 Steering Gear Box

转向机柱 Steering Column

转向总成 Steering Assembly

离合器分泵 Clutch Cylinder

离合器片 Clutch Disc

离合器外壳 Clutch Case

离合器总成 Clutch Assembly

离合器总泵 Clutch Master Cylinder

离合器释放轴承 Clutch Release Bearing

变速箱 Transmission Box

变速箱外壳 Transmission Case

曳力杆 Trailing Arm

避震器前后活塞杆 Piston Rod of Front and Rear

Shock Absorber

底盘系统 Chassis System

自排变速箱修理包 Automatic Transmission

Gasket Kits

齿条 Gear Rack

刹车真空管 Brake Boost Vacuum Tube

车轮系统 Wheeling System

轮毂 Wheel Hub

轮胎 Tire

轮胎汽门嘴 Tire Valve

中文产品名称

Chinese

英文产品名称

English

轮圈 Wheel Disk

轮圈盖 Wheel Cover

内胎(含内衬) Inner Tire (Flap)

车轮系统 Wheeling System

电装品 Electrical Parts

电瓶 Battery

中央门控 Central Door Lock

分电盘 Distributor

火星塞 Spark Plug

汽车用电子钟 Digital Clock

汽车音响 Car Audio

防盗器 Car Burglar Alarm

雨刷及雨刷连杆 Wiper / Linkage

保险丝座 Fuse Seat

保险丝 Fuse

洗涤壶 Windshield Washer

配线 Wire Harness

马达类 Motor

高压线组 Ignition Cable

喇叭 Horn

发电机(零件) Alternator (Components)

开关类 Switch

蜂鸣器 Buzzer

预热塞 Glow Plug

仪表 Combination Meter

灯泡 Bulb

灯类 Lamp

点火线圈 Ignition Coil

继电器 Relay

倒车雷达 Reverse Sensor

电池充电器 Battery Charger

闪光器 Flasher

省电器 Energy Saving Unit

端子 Terminal

电动座椅装置 Power Seat Unit

马达零件 Motor Components

电装品 Electrical Parts

汽车用光盘 Car CD

汽车用液晶显示器 Car LCD

调整器 Regulator

整流器 Rectifier

电子点火器 Ignition Module

倒车显示器 Rear View Display

定速器 Cruise Controller

HID车灯安定器组合 HID Ballast Complete Set for

Headlights

LED 灯 LED Lamp

车灯控制器 Lighting Controller

点火线圈模块 Ignition Coil Module

外装品 Exterior Parts

水箱饰罩 Radiator Grille

天线 Antenna

车身护条 Side Protector

防撞护垫 Bumper Pad

后视镜 Door Mirror

装饰贴纸、标志 Ornament Mark

轮弧 Fender Trim

挡泥板 Mud Guard

扰流板 Spoiler

前防撞杆 Guard Assy (Front)

后防撞杆 Grard Assy (Rear)

外装品 Exterior Parts

内装品 Interior Parts

仪表板 Instrument Panel

中央置物箱 Console

孔塞 Grommet Plug

地毯 Floor Mat

安全带 Seat Belt

车门扶手 Door Armrest

车门把手 Door Handle

车门锁 Door Lock

车顶内衬 Roof Lining

车窗升降摇柄 Window Lifter Handle

车窗升降机 Window Lifter

防水衬条 Weatherstrip

油量表 Fuel Gauge

门饰板 Door Trim

室内镜 Room Mirror

音响喇叭盖 Speaker Cover

(电动)座椅 (Electric) Seat

顶蓬 Headlining

烟灰缸 Ashtray

各类隔音垫 All Kinds of Silencer

饰板/饰条 Garnish / Trim

仪表饰板 Instrument Panel Garnish

遮阳板 Sunvisor

压条 Moulding

点烟器 Cigar Lighter

备胎板 Trim for Spare Tire

天窗 Sun Roof

后置物板 Rear Parcel Shelf

后舱室饰板 Rear Trunk Trim

内装品 Interior Parts

仪表板支架 Instrumental Panel Mounting

其它 Others

随车工具 Tools

千斤顶 Jack

尼龙绳、特多龙绳 Nylon Rope

生产、检测及涂装设备Production,Test & Painting

Equipment

各类孔盖 Cap、Cover

扣具 Cargo Lash

夹片、管束 Clamp, Clip

油土与基准模型 Clay Model and Master Model

油封 Oil Seal

门铰链 Door Hinge

故障标志 Reflector

玻璃类 Glass

修理业 Repairing & Maintenance

粉末冶金 Powder Metallurgy

轴承 Bearing

塑料件 Plastic Parts

隔热材 Heat Insulator

电子件 Electrical Parts

垫片类 Seal、Gasket、Washer、Packing

碳刷 Carbon Brush

管类 Pipe, Hose, Tube

铜套类 Bushing

弹簧 Spring

English

模、夹、治、检具 Die, Fixture, Jig, Checking

Gauge

橡胶件 Rubber Parts

帮浦类 Pump

螺帽/螺栓/螺丝 Nut/Bolt/Screw

锻造件(加工) Forging Parts (Processing)

滤清器类 Filter

锁 Lock

镜类 Mirror

铸造件(加工) Casting Parts (Processing)

引擎盖铰链 Hinge of Engine Hood

行李箱铰链 Hinge of Trunk Lid

保险杆支撑 Mount of Bumper

CAD/CAM车身设计 CAD/CAM Car Body Design

汽车清洁保养用品 Cosmetics for Automobile

涂料 Paints

合成木材 Synthetic Wood

电磁阀 Solenoid Valve

热水阀 Heater Valve

冷煤电磁阀 Refrigerate Solenoid valve

玻璃滑槽 Glass Run

双面胶带 Acrylic Foam Tape

触媒转换器缓冲绵 Catalytic Converter Mate

黑烟过滤器 Diesel Particle Filter

车用灭火器 Extinguisher

零组件用材料 Components Materials

汽车用行动电话 Car Hand-free Mobile Phone

汽车保全系统 Car Security System

汽车导航系统 Car Navigation System

人造革 Artificial Leather

铭板 Nameplate

汽车用计算机 Car Computer

无线电胎压侦测仪 Wireless Tire Monitor

汽车内装用牛皮 Leather for Car Interior

打蜡机 Buffer (Car Polisher)

金属表面处理(材料) Metal Surface Treatment

(Material)

插接件 Connector Clip

胎压不足警示器 Tire Low Pressure Indicator

温度感应器 Water Temperature Sensor

油压感应器 Oil Pressure Sensor

机油 Engine Oil

中文产品名称

Chinese

英文产品名称

English

自动变速箱油 Automatic Transmission Oil

油品添加剂 Oil Additive

热处理 Heat Treatment

自行车类 Bicycle

整车 Finished Bicycle

一般自行车 Regular Bicycle

三轮车 Tricycle

协力车 Tandem Bicycle

城市车 ATB

孩童车 Junveniles Bicycle

室内运动车(健身车) Exerciser

单轮车 Unicycle

无链式自行车 Chainless Bicycle

登山车 Mountain Bicycle

越野车 Trekking Bicycle

跑车(自由车) Racing Bicycle

电动自行车 Electrical Bicycle

折叠式自行车 Folding Bicycle

海滩车 Beach Bicycle

(电动)滑板车 (Electric) Kick Board

Scooter

其它特种自行车 Other Special-purpose

Bicycles

避震脚踏车 Suspension Bicycle

传动件 Transmission

曲柄组 Chainwheel & Crank

飞轮 Flywheel

链条 Chain

变速杆 Shift Lever

变速器 Derailleur

电动自行车马达 Electric Bicycle Motor

电动自行车控制器 Electric Bicycle Driver

齿轮箱 Gear Box

车轮及刹车 Wheel and Brake

轮胎 Tire

夹式刹车器 Caliper Brake

快拆 Quick Release

花鼓 Hub & Free Hub

English

液压式刹车器 Hydraulic Brake

脚刹车器 Coaster Brake

碟式刹车器 Disk Brake

轮圈 Rim

辐条/辐帽 Spoke/Nipple

悬臂式刹车器 Cantilever Brake

控制拉线 Control Cable

刹车来令片 Brake Lining Shoe

配件 Accessories

铃 Bell

反光片 Reflector

水壶架 Bottle Cage

打气筒 Floor Pump

***贴纸 Sticker

货架 Luggage Carrier

速度表 Speed Meter

喇叭 Horn

电灯 Dynamo / Lighting Set

辅助轮 Training Wheel

挡泥板 Mud Guard / Fender

头盔 Helmet

锁 Lock

链盖 Chain Cover

篮 Basket

后视镜 Rear Mirror

车体 Body

车架 Frame

把手 Handle Bar

中轴组件(天心) Bottom Bracket Parts

车手带 Handle Strap

车头组件 Headset

前叉 Front Fork

前叉肩 Fork Crown

后叉端 Rear Fork End

座杆 Seat Post

座杆束 Seat Post Clamp

停车支架 Kickstand

接头 Lug & Shell

辅助把手 Bar End

竖管 Stem

螺帽/螺栓/螺丝 Nut/Bolt/Screw

避震前叉 Suspension Fork

避震器 Shock Absorber

三通管 3-way Pipe

五通管 5-way Pipe

车架材料 Frame Materials

其它 Others

座垫 Saddles

水壶架 Bottle Cage

夹器固定座 Pivot

定趾器 Toe Clip

闪光灯 Flasher

趾夹带 Toe Strap

把手套 Grip

塑料件 Plastic Parts

脚踏板 Pedal

碳刷 Carbon Brush

弹簧 Spring

轮圈盖 Wheel Cover

锻造件(加工) Forging Parts (Processing)

导线 Cable

模、夹、治、检具 Die,Fixture,Jig & Checking

Gauge

橡胶件 Rubber Parts

生产、检测及涂装设备Production,Test & Painting

Equipment

座垫套 Saddle Cover

涂料 Paints

充电器 Charger

温度记录器 Temperature Recorder

电池容量计 Battery Capacity Indicator

电动自行车电路设计Electric Bicycle Circuit

Design

电动自行车电池组 Electric Bicycle Battery Set

机车类 Motorcycle

整车 Finished Motorcycle

50CC以下机车 Less Than 50CC Motorcycle

50~150CC机车 50~150CC Motorcycle

150CC以上机车 More Than 150CC Motorcycle

残障专用车 Motorcycle for Handicap

电动机车 Electric Motorcycle

其它电动辅助车辆 Other Electric Auxiliary

Vehicles

多功能休闲车 ATV

引擎零件 Engine Parts

汽缸 Cylinder

化油器 Carburetor

引擎 Engine

引擎零件 Engine Parts

引擎盖 Engine Cover

水箱 Radiator

火星塞 Spark Plug

凸轮 Cam

凸轮轴 Camshaft

凸轮轴链条 Cam Chain

凸轮链条张力器 Cam Chain Tensioner

曲轴 Crankshaft

曲轴箱 Crankcase

曲轴箱盖 Crankcase Cover

汽门 Valve

汽门座 Valve Seat

汽门导管 Valve Guide

汽缸头 Cylinder Head

汽缸头侧盖 Cylinder Head Side Cover

油帮浦 Oil Pump

后轮驱动座 Rear Wheel Drive Seat

活塞 Piston

活塞肖 Piston Pin

活塞环 Piston Ring

连杆 Connecting Rod

涡轮增压器 Turbo-Supercharger

脚踏起动机杆 Kick Starter

齿轮变速零件 Gear Shift Parts

机油冷却器 Oil Cooler

离合器 Clutch

离合器座 Clutch Plate

离合器杆 Clutch Lever

变速箱 Transmission Box

油管 Fuel Pipe

汽门锁 Valve Cotter

火星塞盖 Plug Cover

齿轮衬套 Gear Bushing

曲轴肖 Crank Shaft Pin

炼条调整器 Tensioner

节流阀 Throttle Valve

离合器来令片 Clutch Lining

齿轮轴 Gear Axle

马达轴 Motor Axle

传动轴 Transmission Axle

车体及电装 Body and Electrical Parts

灯类 Lamp

C.D.I.总成 C.D.I. Unit Assembly

工具 Tool

中心盖 Center Cover

反光片 Reflector

引擎罩盖 Air Shroud / Cylinder

方向把手 Steering Handle

主滑动模轮组件 Primary Sheave Assembly

主脚架 Main Stand

交流发电机(零件) A.C. Generator (Components)

行李箱 Luggage Box

冷却风扇 Cooling Fan

把手盖 Handle Cover

车架 Frame

车体盖 Body Cover

拉杆 Handle Lever

油杯 Fuel Cup Assembly

油箱 Fuel Tank

空气滤清器 Air Cleaner

刹车来令片 Brake Shoe

刹车鼓 Brake Drum

刹车盘 Brake Disk

刹车踏板 Brake Pedal

刹车总成 Brake Assembly

前叉 Front Fork

前叉顶梁 Fork Top Bridge

前护盖 Front Fender

后视镜 Back Mirror

后悬吊系统 Rear Suspension

风扇盖 Air Shroud

飞轮 Flywheel

座垫 Seat

侧脚架 Side Stand

侧盖 Side Cover

排气消音器 Exhaust Muffler

后架 Carrier

喇叭 Horn

无段自动变速系统 C.V.T.

发电机 Alternator

传动轴总成 Secondary Sheave Assembly

摇臂 Rocker Arm

煞车踏板 Brake Pedal

节流把手 Throttle Grip

脚踏板 Board / Footrest

脚踏杆 Kick Crank Assembly

电圈 Starter

电瓶 Battery

配线 Wire Harness

碳刷 Carbon Brush

仪表 Meter

调整器 Regulator

轮胎 Tire

轮圈 Wheel Disk

轮毂 Wheel Hub

导线 Cable

挡泥板 Fender

机车链轮 Chain

灯泡 Bulb

燃油滤清器 Fuel Strainer Assembly

避震器 Shock Absorber

点火线圈 Ignition Coil

转向主干 Steering Stem Comp

链条 Chain

链条盖 Chain Case

继电器 Relay

触媒转化器 Catalytic Converter

排气管 Exhaust Pipe

吊架 Hanger

控制拉线 Control Cable

活性碳罐 Canister

油箱浮筒 Tank Float

机油浮筒 Oil Float

档位调整器 Gear Position Indicator

端子 Terminal

电动机车控制器 Electric Motorcycle Driver

把手座 Grip Holder

马达类 Motor

马达零件 Motor Components

避震器前后活塞杆 Piston Rod of Front and Rear

Shock Absorber

其它 Others

油封 Oil Seal

舌簧阀 Reed Valve

钣金件 Stamping Parts

防盗器 Burglar Alarm

闪光器 Flasher

贴纸 Sticker

轴承 Bearing

开关类 Switch

塑料件 Plastic Parts

电子件 Electrical Parts

垫片 Gasket

管类 Tube or Pipe

弹簧 Spring

模、夹、治、检具 Die, Fixture, Jig, Checking

Gauge

辐条/辐帽 Spoke/Nipple

齿轮 Gear

橡胶件 Rubber Parts

帮浦类 Pump

螺帽/螺栓/螺丝 Nut/Bolt/Screw

锻造件(加工) Forging Parts (Processing)

滤清器 Filter

铸造件(加工) Casting Parts (Processing)

锁 Lock

生产、检测及涂装设备Production,Test & Painting

Equipment

铭板 Name Plate

油土及基准模型 Clay Model and Master Model

地毯 Carpet

涂料 Paints

握把 Grip

置物袋 Carriage Bag

机车座垫用牛皮 Leather for Motorcycle Seat

铁路车辆类 Railroad Vehicle

铁路车辆制造及修理 Railroad Vehicle Manufacture

& Repair

铁路车辆零件 Railroad Vehicle Parts

铁路扣夹 Clip for Railroad

ALTERNATOR ASSY 交流发电机总成
ARMATURE SET 电枢总成
BATTERY 蓄电池
BEARING REAR 起动机启轴承
BEARING 轴 承
BOX ASSY FUSE 保险丝盒总成
BRACE ALTERNATOR 发电机调节杆件
BRACKET ASSY REAR 发电机后端盖总成
BRUSH 电 刷
BRACKET REAR 起动机后端盖
BRACKET ASSY TRONT 起动机前端盖
BOARD PRINTED 仪表印刷电路
BULB LAMP 仪表灯
BLADE ASSY 雨刮片总成
CASE METER 仪表壳体
CABLE ASSY HIGH 中心高压线总成
CABlE SET SPARK PLUG 高压线总成
CAM 分电器凸轮
CAP ASSY 分电器盖总成
CLUTCH OVER RUNNING 啮合器总成
CLOCK DIGITAl 数字钟
CONDENSER 电容器
CONTROLLER SUB ASSY 真空点火提前装置
COIl ASSY IGNITION 点火线圈总成
DISTRIBUTOR ASSY 分电器总成
FUSE 保险丝
FLASHER UNIT HAZARD 转向灯闪光器
GAUGE TEMP 室内灯
GEAR KIT 分电器传动齿轮
GIASS METER 仪表玻璃
HEADLAMP UNIT 大灯芯
UOUSING SUB ASSY 分电器外壳总成
IC REGUlATOR ASSY 集成电路调节器总成
IAMP ASSY HEAD 大灯总成

LAMP KIT FRONT TURN SIGNAL 转向灯总成
LAMP KIT FRONT COMBINATION 前小灯总成
LAMP KIT REAR COMB 尾灯总成
LAMP KIT LICENSE 车牌灯总成
LENS TURN SIGNl LAMP 转向灯玻璃灯罩
LINK WIPER 雨刮器连杆
MOTOR WIPER 雨刮器电动机
MOTOR WASHER 清洗器电动机
PANEL INDICATOR 仪表指示灯面板
PANEL INSTRUMENT 仪表盘架
PLUG SPARK 火花塞
PULLEY ASSY 发电机皮带盘总成
RADIO 收音机
RELAY POWE 雨刮器继电器
RELAY INTERMITTENT WIPER 电源继电器
RESISTOR ASSY 附加电阻总成
RELTIFIER ASSY 发电机整流器总成
ROTOR ASSY 分火头总成
ROOM LAMP 室内灯
RING RETAlNING 大灯框
SPRING GOVERNOR 离心块弹簧
SPEEDOMETER 车速里程表
SPEAKER 扬声器
SOCKET BULB 仪表灯座
SHAFT 分电器轴
STARTER ASSY 起动机总成
SCREW SETTING 大灯调整螺钉
SWITCK COlUMN 灯光组合开关
SWITCH ASSY 电磁开关总成
SUPPORT ASSY ARM 断电器总成
STATOR ASSY 发电机转子总成
TANK WASHER 清洗器电动机
WIRE LEAD 分电器引线
WEIGHT 离心块
VAlVE P.C.V 单向阀
YOKE ASSY 磁场总成

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tractor
A tractor is a vehicle intended for drawing, towing, pushing or pulling something which cannot propel itself and, often, powering it too. Most commonly the word is used to describe a vehicle intended for pulling some other vehicle or object (see traction unit).

The word comes from the Latin trahere "to pull". A conflicting history of the name suggests that steam tractors were originally referred to as traction engines, with the word "tractor" eventually deriving from a contraction of 'traction' and 'motor'. [1]

Contents [hide]
1 National variations
2 Farm tractor
2.1 History
2.2 Operation
2.3 Power and transmission
2.4 Safety
2.5 Applications
2.6 Precision agriculture
3 Backhoe loader
4 Engineering tractors
5 EPA tractor
6 Other types of tractors
7 Other uses of the word Tractor
7.1 In aerospace
7.2 In computers
7.3 In downhole oil-well data logging
8 Manufacturers
9 See also
10 References
11 External links

[edit] National variations
In Britain, Australia, India, Spain and Poland the word "tractor" usually means "farm tractor", and the use of the word "tractor" to mean other types of vehicles is familiar to the vehicle trade but unfamiliar to much of the general public. In Canada and the US the word is also used to refer to a road tractor .

[edit] Farm tractor

A modern John Deere 8110 Farm Tractor plowing a field using a chisel plow.The most common use of the term is for the vehicles used on farms. The farm tractor is used for pulling or pushing agricultural machinery or trailers, for plowing, tilling, disking, harrowing, planting, and similar tasks.

[edit] History
The first powered farm implements in the early 1800s were portable engines – steam engines on wheels that could be used to drive mechanical farm machinery by way of a flexible belt. Around 1850, the first traction engines were developed from these, and were widely adopted for agricultural use. Where soil conditions permitted, such as the US, steam tractors were used to direct-haul ploughs, but in the UK, ploughing engines were used for cable-hauled ploughing instead. Steam-powered agricultural engines remained in use well into the 20th century, until reliable internal combustion engines had been developed. [2]

In 1892, John Froelich built the first practical gasoline-powered tractor in Clayton County, Iowa. Only two were sold, and it was not until 1911, when the Waterloo Gasoline Traction Engine Company developed the design, that it became successful.

In Britain, the first recorded tractor sale was the oil-burning Hornsby-Ackroyd Patent Safety Oil Traction engine, in 1897. However, the first commercially successful design was Dan Albone's three-wheel Ivel tractor of 1902. In 1908, Saundersons of Bedford introduced a four-wheel design, and went on to become the largest tractor manufacturer outside the USA.

While unpopular at first, these gasoline-powered machines began to catch on in the 1910s as they became smaller and more affordable. Henry Ford introduced the Fordson, the first mass-produced tractor in 1917. They were built in the U.S., Ireland, England and Russia and by 1923, Fordson had 77% of the U.S. market. The Fordson dispensed with a frame, using the strength of the engine block to hold the machine together. By the 1920s, tractors with a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine had become the norm.

The classic farm tractor is a simple open vehicle, with two very large driving wheels on an axle below and slightly behind a single seat (the seat and steering wheel consequently are in the center), and the engine in front of the driver, with two steerable wheels below the engine compartment. This basic design has remained unchanged for a number of years, but enclosed cabs are fitted on almost all modern models, for reasons of operator safety and comfort.

There are also lawn tractors. Cub Cadet, Husqvarna, John Deere, Massey Ferguson and Toro are some of the better-known brands.

[edit] Operation

A small red tractor towing a cargo cartModern farm tractors usually have five foot-pedals for the operator on the floor of the tractor. The pedal on the left is the clutch. The operator presses on this pedal to disengage the transmission for either shifting gears or stopping the tractor. Two of the pedals on the right are the brakes. The left brake pedal stops the left rear wheel and the right brake pedal does the same with the right side. This independent left and right wheel braking augments the steering of the tractor when only the two rear wheels are driven. This is usually done when it is necessary to make a tight turn. The split brake pedal is also used in mud or soft dirt to control a tire that spins due to loss of traction. The operator presses both pedals together to stop the tractor. For tractors with additional front-wheel drive, this operation often engages the 4-wheel locking differential to help stop the tractor when travelling at road speeds.

A fifth pedal just in front of the seat operates the rear differential lock (diff lock) which prevents wheelslip. The differential allows the outside wheel to travel faster than the inside one during a turn. However, in traction conditions on a soft surface the same mechanism could allow one wheel to slip, thus preventing traction to the other wheel. The diff lock overides this, causing both wheels to supply equal traction. Care must be taken to unlock the differential, usually by hitting the pedal a second time, before turning, since the tractor cannot perform a turn with the diff lock engaged.

The pedal furthest to the right is the foot throttle. Unlike in automobiles, it can also be controlled from a hand-operated lever ("hand throttle"). This helps provide a constant speed in field work. It also helps provide continuous power for stationary tractors that are operating an implement by shaft or belt. The foot throttle gives the operator more automobile-like control over the speed of the tractor for road work. This is a feature of more recent tractors; older tractors often did not have this feature. In the UK it is mandatory to use the foot pedal to control engine speed while travelling on the road. Some tractors, especially those designed for row-crop work, have a 'de-accelerator' pedal, which operates in the reverse fashion to an automobile throttle, in that the pedal is pushed down to slow the engine. This is to allow fine control over the speed of the tractor when maneuvering at the end of crop rows in fields- the operating speed of the engine is set using the hand throttle, and if the operator wishes to slow the tractor to turn, he simply has to press the pedal, turn and release it once the turn is completed, rather than having to alter the setting of the hand throttle twice during the maneuver.

[edit] Power and transmission
Modern farm tractors employ large diesel engines, which range in power output from 18 to 575 horsepower (15 to 480 kW). Tractors can be generally classified as two-wheel drive, two-wheel drive with front wheel assist, four-wheel drive (often with articulated steering), or track tractors (with either two or four powered rubber tracks). Variations of the classic style include the diminutive lawn tractors and their more capable and ruggedly constructed cousins, garden tractors, that range from about 10 to 25 horsepower and are used for smaller farm tasks and mowing grass and landscaping. Their size—especially with modern tractors—and the slower speeds are reasons motorists are urged to use caution when encountering a tractor on the roads.

A PTO shaft plugged into a tractor.Most tractors have a means to transfer power to another machine such as a baler, slasher or mower. Early tractors used belts wrapped around pulleys to power stationary equipment. Modern tractors use a power take-off shaft (PTO) to provide rotary power to machinery that may be stationary or pulled. Almost all modern tractors can also provide external hydraulic fluid and electrical power.

Most farm tractors use a manual transmission. They have several sets of gear ratios divided into speeds. To change ratio it is usually necessary to stop the tractor. Between them they provide a range of speeds from less than one mile per hour suitable for working the land, up to about 25 miles per hour for road use. Furthermore it is usually not necessary to change gear in order to reverse, one simply selects a lever. Older tractors usually require that the operator depress the clutch in order to shift between gears (a limitation of straight-cut gears in the gearbox), but many modern tractors have eliminated this requirement with the introduction of technologies such as power shifting in the 1960's and more modern continuously variable transmissions. This allows the operator more and easier control over working speed than the throttle alone could provide.

Slow, controllable speeds are necessary for most operations that are performed with a tractor. They help give the farmer a larger degree of control in certain situations, such as field work. However, when travelling on public roads, the slow operating speeds can cause problems, such as long queues or tailbacks, which can delay or aggravate other road users. To alleviate conditions, some countries (for example the Netherlands) employ a road sign on some roads that means "no farm tractors". Some modern tractors, such as the JCB Fastrac, are now capable of much more tolerable road speeds of around 50 mph.

[edit] Safety

The classic Row Crop tractor (an Allis-Chalmer WD). Note the absence of any rollover protection system.Modern tractors have rollover protection systems (ROPS) to prevent an operator from being crushed if the tractor rolls over. This is especially important in open-air tractors, where the ROPS is a steel beam that extends above the operator's seat. For tractors with operator cabs, the ROPS is part of the frame of the cab. Before ROPS were required, some farmers died when their tractors rolled on top of them. Row-crop tractors, before ROPS, were particularly dangerous because of their 'tricycle' design with the two front wheels spaced close together and angled inward toward the ground. Some farmers were killed by rollovers while operating tractors along steep slopes. Others have been killed whilst attempting to tow or pull an excessive load from above axle height, or when cold weather caused the tires to freeze down, in both cases causing the tractor to pivot around the rear axle. ROPS were first required by legislation in New Zealand in the 1960s.

[edit] Applications
Farm implements can be attached to the rear of the tractor by either a drawbar or a three-point hitch. The three-point hitch was invented by Harry Ferguson and has been standard since the 1960s. Equipment attached to the three-point hitch can be raised or lowered hydraulically with a control lever. The equipment attached to the three-point hitch is usually completely supported by the tractor. Another way to attach an implement is via a Quick Hitch, which is attached to the three-point hitch. This enables a single person to attach an implement quicker and put the person in less danger when attaching the implement.

Some farm-type tractors are found elsewhere than on farms: with large universities' gardening departments, in public parks or for highway workman use with blowtorch cylinders strapped to its sides and a pneumatic drill air compressor permanently fastened over its power take-off. These are often fitted with grass tyres which are less damaging to soft surfaces than agricultural tyres.

[edit] Precision agriculture
Space technology has found its way into down to agriculture in the form of GPS devices, and robust on-board computers installed as optional features on farm tractors. These technologies are used in modern, precision farming techniques. The spin-offs from the space race have actually facilitated automation in plowing and the use of autosteer systems drone on tractors that are manned but only steered at the end of a row, the idea being to neither overlap and use more fuel nor leave streakes when performing jobs such as cultivating.

[edit] Backhoe loader
Main article: Backhoe loader

A common backhoe-loader. The backhoe is on the left, the bucket/blade on the right.The most common variation of the classic farm tractor is the hoe, also called a hoe-loader. As the name implies, it has a loader assembly on the front and a backhoe on the back. Backhoes attach to a 3 point hitch on farm or industrial tractors. Industrial tractors are often heavier in construction particularly with regards to the use of steel grill for protection from rocks and the use of construction tires. When the backhoe is permanently attached, the machine usually has a seat that can swivel to the rear to face the hoe controls. Removable backhoe attachments almost always have a separate seat on the attachment.

Backhoe-loaders are very common and can be used for a wide variety of tasks: construction, small demolitions, light transportation of building materials, powering building equipment, digging holes, breaking asphalt and paving roads. Some buckets have a retractable bottom, enabling them to empty their load more quickly and efficiently. Buckets with retractable bottoms are also often used for grading and scratching off sand. The front assembly may be a removable attachment or permanently mounted. Often the bucket can be replaced with other devices or tools.

Their relatively small frame and precise control make backhoe-loaders very useful and common in urban engineering projects such as construction and repairs in areas too small for larger equipment. Their versatility and compact size makes them one of the most popular urban construction vehicles.

In the UK, the word "JCB" is sometimes used colloquially as a genericized trademark for any such type of engineering vehicle, JCB now appears in the Oxford English Dictionary, although it is still treated as a trademark. In some areas of North America a backhoes is often referred to as a 530 after the J. I. Case & Co. 530 Construction King tractor.

[edit] Engineering tractors

A tractor factory in Chelyabinsk in the Soviet Union circa 1930.The durability and engine power of tractors made them very suitable for engineering tasks. Tractors can be fitted with engineering tools such as dozer blade, bucket, hoe, ripper, and so on. The most common attachments for the front of a tractor are dozer blade or a bucket. When attached with engineering tools the tractor is called an engineering vehicle.

A bulldozer is a track-type tractor attached with blade in the front and a rope-winch behind. Bulldozers are very powerful tractors and have excellent ground-hold, as their main tasks are to push or drag things.

Bulldozers have been further modified over time to evolve into new machines which are capable of working in ways that the original bulldozer can not. One example is that loader tractors were created by removing the blade and substituting a large volume bucket and hydraulic arms which can raise and lower the bucket, thus making it useful for scooping up earth, rock and similar loose material to load it into trucks.

A front-loader or loader is a tractor with an engineering tool which consists of two hydraulic powered arms on either side of the front engine compartment and a tilting implement. This is usually a wide open box called a bucket but other common attachments are a pallet fork and a bale grappler.

Other modifications to the original bulldozer include making the machine smaller to let it operate in small work areas where movement is limited. There are also tiny wheeled loaders, officially called Skid-steer loaders but nicknamed "Bobcat" after the original manufacturer, which are particularly suited for small excavation projects in confined areas.

[edit] EPA tractor

A Ford rebuilt to an EPA tractor.
A Volvo Duett rebuilt to an EPA tractor. Obviously the intended use is no longer as a farm vehicle.
An "A tractor" based on Volvo 760. Notice the slow vehicle triangle and the longer boot.During World War II there was a shortage of tractors in Sweden and this led to the invention of a new type of tractor called the EPA tractor (EPA was a chain of discount stores and it was often used to signify something lacking in quality). An EPA tractor was simply an automobile, truck or lorry, with the passenger space was cut off behind the front seats, equipped with two gearboxes in a row. When done to an older car with a ladder frame, the result was not dissimilar to a tractor and could be used as one.

After the war it remained popular, now not as a farm vehicle, but as a way for young people without a driver's license to own something similar to a car. Since it was legally seen as a tractor it could be driven from 16 years of age and only required a tractor license. Eventually the legal loophole was closed and no new EPA tractors were allowed to be made, but the remaining were still legal, something that led to inflated prices and many protests from people that preferred EPA tractors to ordinary cars.

In March 31, 1975 a similar type of vehicle was introduced, the A tractor [from arbetstraktor (work tractor)]. The main difference is that an A tractor has a top speed of 30 km/h. This is usually done by fitting two gearboxes in a row and not using one of them. Volvo Duett was for a long time the primary choice for conversion to an EPA or A tractor, but, since supplies have dried up, other cars have been used, in most cases a Volvo.

[edit] Other types of tractors
The term tractor (US & Canada) or tractor unit (UK) is also applied to:

Road tractors or tractor units
Heavy-duty vehicles with large engines and several axles. These tractors are designed to pull long semi-trailers, most often for the transport of freight of some kind over a significant distance (see also semi-trailer truck). In England this type of "tractor" is often called an "artic cab".
Locomotive tractors (engines) or Rail car movers
The amalgamation of machines, electrical generators, controls and devices that comprise the traction component of railway vehicles
Artillery tractors
Vehicles used to tow artillery pieces of varying weights.

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